Vol. 40 No. 2, March 1987, pp. 57-75 [Also in Art and Architecture of Ancient Kashmir edited by Pratapaditya Pal; Vol. 40 No. 2, March 1989; ISBN: 81-85026-06-8, pp. 117-135]
The present evidence indicates that the Kashmiri influence was strongly felt in Western Tibetan sculpture during the 10th and 11th centuries, when dozens of Kashmiri artists were present in the region. A parallel development was also witnessed in the surviving murals in the monasteries of Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, and Western Tibet. Despite the decay and destruction of many murals, an impressive number has survived. A strong Kashmiri style is dominant in the late 10th and 11th centuries and a more recognizably Tibetan style emerging from the 13th century. By far the largest number has survived at Alchi and Tabo, and although the murals show some stylistic differences, there is no doubt that they are 2 different expressions of the same aesthetic vision and painting tradition. It is now generally recognized that these murals are of as great an interest for the history of Kashmiri painting as they are for Tibetan. The chance survival of some 11th-century examples of manuscripts from Western Tibet demonstrates that there was a tradition of illuminating manuscripts in the Kashmiri style.