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Volume 37 Number 1, December 1983

Volume 37 Number 1

Maharashtra - Religious and Secular Architecture

Introduction
Saryu Doshi

Rock-cut Temples
Karl Khandalavala

Ancient Structures
A.P. Jamkhedkar

Medieval Monuments
Shankar Menon

Bombay 
   Perspective
    P.M. Joshi and S.S. Rege

    Landmarks
    Foy Nissen

    Charisma
    Behram Contractor

Notes: Mati Ye Tere Rup
Haku Shah

Book Reviews

Photo-Credits

Introduction
Doshi, Saryu
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, p. 2

This article gives an overview of the articles in this magazine and explains their importance and connection to Maharashtra.

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Historical Monuments: Rock-cut Temples
Khandalavala, Karl
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 3-24 [Also in Maharashtra edited by Saryu Doshi; Vol. 36 No. 4/Vol. 37 No. 1, June 1985; pp. 207-230]

The rock-cut cave temples and monastic dwellings in Maharashtra are amongst the greatest creations of Indian architecture and sculpture. No other area in India has such a large number of them - there are over 1000 excavated shrines, large and small, completed and uncompleted. Excavated sometime between the 2nd century BCE to the 9th century CE, these Buddhist, Brahmanical, and Jain temples contain superb examples of sculpture and, occasionally, even paintings. Some of the important rock-cut temples in Maharashtra are discussed in this article.

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Historical Monuments: Ancient Structures
Jamkhedkar, A.P.
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 25-36 [Also in Maharashtra edited by Saryu Doshi; Vol. 36 No. 4/Vol. 37 No. 1, June 1985, pp. 231-242]

The history of religious architecture in Maharashtra, in its early phases is dominated by rock-cut architecture. Along with other regions, Maharashtra came under the influence of the Guptas, and this led to the development of structural stone architecture in Maharashtra. There are examples of wooden and brick architecture also. But a forceful attempt towards erecting structural temples was made only under the patronage of later Chalukyas, Yadavas, and Shilaharas. A survey of early religious architecture is given with a discussion of the following subjects: Pre-Yadava Structural Temples at Ramtek, Early Brick Temples, Post-Rashtrakuta Architecture, Shilahara Temple at Khidrapur, and Step-Wells and Memorial Stones.

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Historical Monuments: Medieval Monuments
Menon, Shankar
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 37-48 [Also in Maharashtra edited by Saryu Doshi; Vol. 36 No. 4/Vol. 37 No. 1, June 1985; pp. 243-254]

Medieval Indian history in the present area of Maharashtra saw the apotheosis of fort architecture and construction during the glories of Shivaji's Maratha empire. Yet even before Shivaji, there was a substantial network of forts that had already been built in western and coastal Maharashtra. This region had ideal terrain for the construction of forts. The ancient rulers of this area, made full use of the geographical features of the state. More than 350 forts have been built in Maharashtra on strong boulders or just off the coast, in the sea itself. This article discusses the forts of Maharashtra as well as classical residential architecture and temples belonging to the medieval period.

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Bombay: Perspective
Joshi, P.M. and Rege, S.S.
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 51-64 [Also in Maharashtra edited by Saryu Doshi; Vol. 36 No. 4/Vol. 37 No. 1, June 1985; pp. 255-270]

A historical and political overview of Bombay city is given in this article. The authors trace the origin of its name, the many rulers of the city, the development of trade and commerce, communities, and a few prominent developments of the city, including the growth of transport and communication, and enterprising personalities that have contributed to the growth of the city.

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Bombay: Landmarks
Nissen, Foy
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 65-76 [Also in Maharashtra edited by Saryu Doshi; Vol. 36 No. 4/Vol. 37 No. 1, June 1985; pp. 271-282]

Already rich in archaeological and architectural monuments affording an imposing vista of man's history, Maharashtra happens to have caught in its architectural mirror the finest reflection of the British Raj's cultural and commercial self-confidence in 19th-century India. Economic power, reinforced with the guiding hand of Governor Sir Bartle Frere, saw to it that most of the best examples of the new architecture were located in Bombay. The result is an astonishing concentration of High Victorian Gothic expressed in public and private buildings of great splendour and considerable sophistication. This article gives an overview of the architectural landmarks of Bombay during the British rule of the 19th century, keeping in mind the styles of the period, the architects of prominence, and the important buildings.

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Bombay: Charisma
Contractor, Behram
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 77-85 [Also in Maharashtra edited by Saryu Doshi; Vol. 36 No. 4/Vol. 37 No. 1, June 1985; pp. 283-291]

The author's views and reflections of Bombay city are given in this article. The article captures the ambience of the present day and of times gone by, discusses the differing facets of the city, and explains why it continues to attract thousands of people to it everyday.

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Note: Mati Ye Tere Rup
Shah, Haku
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 86-88

The exhibition "Mati Ye Tere Rup" had been designed to highlight a neglected, yet crucial, aspect of the terracotta and pottery craft - that of its integrity with the life of the rural folk in India. This exhibition was designed to recreate an environment which would approximate the original ambience - rooting the craft in its proper context. Objects were displayed not in enclosed glass cases but in open niches and on platforms which gave a feeling of directness. One of the salient features of the exhibition was the recreation of votive sanctuaries. The exhibition emphasized visual rather than verbal instructions, as is the case in the traditional set-up of a rural craftsman. Instead of elaborate write-ups, the gallery walls displayed photographs of potters' workshops and different aspects of rural life and craft. Potters provided live demonstrations.

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Book–Reviews
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 89-90

South Indian Inscriptions Vol. 2, Parts I & II by E. Hultzsch, reviewed by K. V. Soundara Rajan; Ancient Indian Costume by Roshen Alkazi, reviewed by K. G. Subramanyan.

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The Picture-Postcard - A Reflection of Daily Life
Swali, Haridas
Vol. 37 No. 1, December 1983, pp. 91-93
The picture-postcard is an accomplished voyager which serves both as a personal messenger and as a record of a time and a place. The invention of the picture-postcard is a relatively recent one which occurred around the latter part of the 19th century. The post-offices of the world approved the foreign transmission of the postcard as a low-priced means of communication for all nations in 1878. Photography played an important role in the evolution of this form of communication. The development of the picture-postcard as a form of communication and its pictorial importance is discussed under the following headings: 1909 - the Indo-British Connection, 1914-1918 - the War Years, 1917 - When Will This Awful War End ?, The Asian Exchange Club of Poona, and Popular Themes of India.
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