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Volume 12 Number 3, June 1959

Volume 12 Number 3

In Praise of Mandu

In Praise of Mandu (Editorial)

1. Chronological Chart of Mandu

2. Preliminary: Survey of Important Monuments of Mandu
Ghulam Yazdani

3. The Development of Mandu Architecture:
The First Phase
The Second Phase
The Third Phase

1. The Bustan Manuscript of Sultan Nasir Shah Khalji
Richard Ettinghausen

2. The Ni’mat Nama:
A Landmark in Malwa Painting
Robert Skelton

3. Notes on Mandu Kalpasutra
Pramod Chandra

Appendix: Of Songs and Verses Attributed to Rupmati

In Praise of Mandu [Editorial]
Anand, Mulk Raj
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 2-3

Between 1389-1555, Mandu was the capital of three Pathan dynasties, who employed Hindu craftsmen and patronized local painters and poets, alongwith their Muslim counterparts. Thus, a synthesis was evolved between the provincial Persian ideas and the indigenous Hindu culture, and remnants of that culture bear testimony to the enduring creativeness of India until the 18th century.

Chronological Chart of Mandu
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, p. 4

The chart lists the successive occupation of Mandu by the Paramaras (8th-13th centuries). Ghorids (1401-69), Khaljis (1469-1526), Sultans of Mandu (1536-61), and Mughals (1534, 1562, and later). It also lists the architectural accomplishments in each of these phases.

Preliminary: Survey of Important Monuments of Mandu
Yazdani, Ghulam
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 5-7

The salient features in the architecture and planning of the monuments built by Hoshang Shah (1405-35) - the Delhi Gate, Jami Masjid, and his tomb – the tomb of Mahmud Khalji, and the Hindola Mahal or "Swing Palace" (probably built by Ghiyath-ud-din Khalji, 1469-1500) are described. All these buildings show the coexistence of Islamic forms (arches, domes, and turrets) with the skill of indigenous stonecarvers.

Development of Mandu Architecture
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 8-11
Indigenous and Islamic architecture intermingled in and around Delhi during the rule of the Slave kings, Khaljis (1290-1320), Tughlaqs (1320-1430), and Sayyids and Lodis (1414-1526). However, the synthesis of Indo-Islamic architecture was more easily achieved in the provincial centres such as Malwa. The fusion of elements from Delhi with local features led to the distinctive Malwa style. The Islamic architecture in Mandu developed in 3 phases: mosques at Dhar and Mandu built out of broken down temples; use of elegant structural forms; and a romantic phase characterized by pillared courts, fountains, tanks, wells, pavilions, kiosks, balconied turrets, and colonnaded terraces.
Development of Mandu Architecture: The First Phase
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 12-13
The Islamic buildings at Dhar and Mandu in the first phase are characterized by improvization and innovation. The improvized architecture of the mosque of Dilawar Khan (the first Sultan of Malwa) built in 1405 is mainly of Hindu workmanship. The Lat Masjid and the later mosque of Malik Mughith carry the innovative feature of perforated patterns relieving the spandrils.
Development of Mandu Architecture: The Second Phase
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 14-32
The monuments of the period are: Delhi Gate, the Jami Masjid, begun by Hoshang Shah and completed by his successor Mahmud Khalji; the Ashrafi Mahal (the Madrasah); the Tower of Victory; Hoshang's tomb, conceived by Hoshang and completed by Mahmud Khalji in 1440; Hindola Mahal, built by Hoshang Shah; Jahaz Mahal, perhaps built in the reign of Ghiyath-ud-din Khalji; and the baolis and palaces of Champa, Ujala, and Andheri.
Development of Mandu Architecture: The Third Phase
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 33-38
This is the phase of embellishment of the previous classical school. The article describes the architecture of Baz Bahadur's palace (first built by Nasir-ud-din Khalji in 1508, and later extended by Baz Bahadur); Rupmati's pavilions; the Nilkanth palace; Chisti Khan's palace; and Gada Shah's shop and house.
Painting: Introduction
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 39-40

The researches of Hermann Goetz, Moti Chandra, and Karl Khandalavala have pointed to the presence of Persian decorative elements in the Jaina Kalpasutras of the 15th century. More recently, the essays of W.G. Archer on Indian Paintings and Central Indian Painting adduce the Persian-Hindu mixture of painting styles in Mandu. The following three essays (in this issue) on the Bustan of Sa'di, Ni'matnama, and the Mandu Jaina Kalpasutra confirm this hypothesis of a Persian-Indian synthesis.

Painting: The Bustan Manuscript of Sultan Nasir Shah Khalji
Ettinghausen, Richard
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 40-43
This illustrated manuscript of Sa'di's Bustan in the National Museum, New Delhi, was painted by Hajji Mahmud, with calligraphy in the Nastaliq script by Shahsuwara, and executed for the Khalji sultan, Nasir Shah (r. 1500-10). It has 43 miniatures depicting various scenes in the usual Persian decorative manner. The style of the manuscript is similar to the illuminated manuscripts executed in Bukhara under the Shaybanid rulers as early as 1520 and 1523.
Painting: The Ni'mat nama: A Landmark in Malwa Painting
Skelton, Robert
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 44-50
The paintings of the Ni'matnama (book of delicacies) manuscript in the India Office library are by two Indian artists, one of whom was probably recruited from a Jaina artist family at Mandu and subjected to the Persian style, while the other may also have received training from a Persian master. The miniatures reproduce certain Persian conventions from the late 15th-century Turkoman style practised at Shiraz in western Persia, and are therefore datable to the first decade of the 16th century, i.e., the reign of Nasir-al-din Khalji. The paintings also show Indian elements, particularly in the depiction of human figures. The text of the Ni'matnama contains a series of recipes and prescriptions.
Painting: Notes on Mandu Kalpasutra of A.D. 1439
Chandra, Pramod
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 51-54

The Kalpasutra was prepared in VS 1496 (1439 CE) at the fort of Mandu in the reign of Mahmud Shah Khalji. A few miniatures from the manuscript are described to highlight the features common with the Ni'matnama, and thereby to show the continuity in style between these two manuscripts. Some of the features are also seen in the Jaunpur Kalpasutra of 1465 CE.

Appendix: Of Songs and Verses Attributed to Rupmati
Vol. 12 No. 3, June 1959, pp. 55-59

Reproduced are the dohas, kabittas, and sawaiyas still sung by the musicians of Malwa and attributed to Rupmati, the queen of Baz Bahadur, the last sultan of Mandu. L.M. Crump - who has discovered material on Rupmati - comments on the problem of ascription and arrangement of the songs.